Roses like clay soil,
although they may be grown successfully in a variety of soils, as long
as a good amount of organic matter is worked in. Very heavy soils are
best improved by replacing at least half with sandy loam or sharp
sand; also gypsum and/or perlite may be added.
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Spring planting is best done as early
as possible, and as soon as the frost is out of the ground; a newly
planted rose establishes itself quickest in the cool moist spring soil,
rather than in May, when the air is often hot and dry. Also, the longer
growing period will produce more and better blooms.
Generally, roses do best in full sun, but a minimum of 4 to 6 hours
sunshine daily, is satisfactory. Competition from tree roots should be
avoided, as also badly drained areas. In cold climates, roses should be
planted in the ground; in raised beds or containers above ground level,
the plants will be more readily winter-killed.
like clay soil, although they may be grown successfully in a variety of
soils, as long as a good amount of organic matter is worked in. Very heavy
soils are best improved by replacing at least half with sandy loam or
sharp sand; also gypsum and/or perlite may be added.
possible, it's best to do this some time prior to receiving the plants.
The deeper the soil is prepared the better, even to a depth of 18 to 24
inches. If obtainable, cow manure is best to mix with the soil in liberal
quantities. Well-rotted horse or sheep manure can be used too. With or
without manure, peatmoss is always good to mix in liberally throughout the
bed; when planting a single bush, a climbing rose for instance, the mixing
in to the equivalent of a 2 to 3 gallon pail of peatmoss is good practice.
In addition, bone meal or superphosphate at a rate of 5 lb per 100 sq. ft.
of bed, or a double handful per plant is advisable. We need not fear
making it too rich, because roses are heavy feeders, and organic matter
adds to the moisture retaining quality of the soil.
teas, Grandifloras and Floribundas at 18 to 24 inches apart. Climbers 5 to
6 feet and even up to 8 feet for the more vigorous kinds. In mild
climates, the above distances, especially for bush roses, would be
prevent the finer roots from drying out, especially on a sunny windy day,
it's advisable to have the plants in a bucket of water while planting. The
holes should be dug large and deep enough so that the roots spread out
freely; they should not be bunched up in a narrow, shallow hole. The plant
is then held in the right position, with the union (or "crown") at or one
inch below the surface. Fine soil, preferably a mixture as describe above,
is then used for backfilling the hole. This loose earth should be firmed
down with one's feet up to more or less two-thirds of the depth; the
remainder of the hole is then filled with water, and after this has soaked
away, backfill the rest of the hole. When planting bareroot roses in late
spring, it's best to mound each plant with soil for about 2 weeks to
prevent the branches from drying out on sunny days.
utmost importance not to let plant roots dry out before planting. Ideally,
roses should be planted immediately when received; if this is not
possible, then it's best to store the plants in a closed plastic bag in a
cool frost-proof place. In case the branches look shriveled, the plants
may be immersed in water until the bark looks smooth again; they should
not be left in water longer than is necessary though. If planting has to
be delayed for a considerable time, then it's best to bury the plants in
moist earth in a slanted position, leaving only the branch tips sticking
should be cut back severely: only 3 strong branches from the base need to
remain, and it is best to cut these back to 4 or 5 inches above the
ground. This severe pruning gives the plant a better chance to establish
itself, and once new roots are developing, strong growth will come forth.
When planting in fall, the plants need not be cut back much; the actual
pruning as explained, should be done the following spring. The roots may
be cut back an inch or two, and excessively long ones further. Broken ones
should be cut off.
be kept in mind that a plant which receives good nourishment and is looked
after well, is the least prone to diseases. It's good practice to spray or
dust regularly from the time the first leaves start to develop.
Commercial fertilizer, other than bone meal or superphosphate, should not
be used at planting time, unless it's a "plant starter" formula, in liquid
or water soluble form. Chemical fertilizer should be used strictly in
accordance with the directions on the package. Once the roses are
established and growing well, such fertilizer may be spread on the
surface; then to be raked or hoed in, and followed up with a soaking if
the ground is dry. Granular fertilizer should not be applied after the end
of July; liquid fertilizer may be used till mid-August, though moderately!
Late season fertilization with nitrogen should be avoided as it leaves the
plants with soft growth when winter sets in, and they get more readily
winter-killed. Potash and superphosphate can be applied in late summer, to
help late growth harden off before freezing weather sets in.
though roses like good drainage, they do need a lot of water during the
growing season. During prolonged periods of drought they should be
thoroughly soaked, once or maybe twice a week, depending on the moisture
holding capacity of the soil. In most cases it's best to water in the late
afternoon or early morning. To avoid spray or dusting chemicals from being
washed off the leaves, the water should be applied straight to the soil
around the plants.
northern climate, Hybrid teas, Grandifloras and Floribundas should be
pruned back in early spring to approximately 4 to 6 inches above ground
level. The strongest branches only, should be left to develop. As for
pruning others, see the next paragraph.
non-recurrent varieties do not usually bloom the first season following
planting. Depending on frost-die-back, they require very little or no
pruning then. As the plants grow older, the removal of older wood
suffices; this applies to Hybrid PerpetuaIs, Climbers, shrub roses, and
many of the Antique roses.
shoots) may occasionally develop from at or below the bud union. These
should be removed entirely at the point of origin; as young shoots they
can usually be wrenched off. Care should be taken not to leave the
slightest stub on the rootstock, other-wise all the more suckers will
sprout, which will be all the more difficult to remove later.
pay attention to the non-sensical assertion that seven leaflets per leaf
is indicative of a wild shoot. Many of the old varieties have seven and
more leaflets per leaf, and you may even notice seven leaflets on some of
the modern cultivars.
been said of our roses that "the roots could not be spread over the cone
in the bottom of the hole." That would be difficult indeed; but then,
there's absolutely no need for that anyway How about "ready to plant"
packaged or potted roses: it would have been impossible to spread those
roots over a mound, regardless of the type of rootstock.
the plants to sprout when they have been exposed to heat. If the roses
have broken dormancy to the extent that new growth has developed, then
it's best to cut it back to one-eight of an inch. New (white) roots will
probably have started too then. When planting, assure that the roots are
wet; never leave roots exposed to the air, as the fine-ones dry out
quickest, and they're the most important to get the plants off to a fast
start. The best is to "puddle" the roots in a soupy mud, with a solution
of "plant starter" (root-promotor) added. Hill the plants up with soil,
leafmold or other suitable organic matter (but not manure or mushroom
compost unless really old), which can be levelled after 2 to 3 weeks.
milder or more severe climate, some of these tips would be subject to
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